In basic algebra we were taught that if we have three unknowns (variables), it takes three equations to solve for them. There’s some fine print though that isn’t talked about until quite a bit later. Let’s have a look at … Continue reading

# Demofox

“Scratch a Pixel” has a really nice explanation of perspective and orthogonal projection matrices. It inspired me to make a very simple / plain explanation of orthogonal projection matrices that hopefully will help them be less opaque for folks and … Continue reading

I an in favor of people generating less trash, and have been amazed that where I live (southern California), people have taken a “plastic bag ban” so well in stride. It felt like one of those things where we couldn’t … Continue reading

This post is a recipe for making a neural network which is able to recognize hand written numeric digits (0-9) with 95% accuracy. The intent is that you can use this recipe (and included simple C++ code, and interactive web … Continue reading

In the post How to Train Neural Networks With Backpropagation I said that you could also calculate the gradient of a neural network by using dual numbers or finite differences. By special request, this is that post! The post I … Continue reading

This post is an attempt to demystify backpropagation, which is the most common method for training neural networks. This post is broken into a few main sections: Explanation Working through examples Simple sample C++ source code using only standard includes … Continue reading

In a previous post I showed how to use dual numbers to be able to get both the value and derivative of a function at the same time: Dual Numbers & Automatic Differentiation That post mentions that you can extend … Continue reading

In the 90s before I was a professional programmer / game developer I looked at neural networks and found them interesting but got scared off by things like back propagation, which I wasn’t yet ready to understand. With all the … Continue reading

Preface: I studied martial arts for a little over a decade (shaolin kempo at USSD) and learned a lot while I was there. Our teacher was a great guy who genuinely cared about his students, and in particular, taught my … Continue reading

This post talks about how to render images like the below in real time using ray tracing. Some realism in the images come from reflection and refraction, but the real icing on the cake comes from Fresnel, total internal reflection … Continue reading