In a previous post I showed how to use dual numbers to be able to get both the value and derivative of a function at the same time:

Dual Numbers & Automatic Differentiation

That post mentions that you can extend it to multivariable functions but doesn’t explain how. This post is that explanation, including simple working C++ code!

Extending this to multivariable functions is useful for ray marching, calculating analytical surface normals and also likely useful for training a neural network if you want an alternative to back propagation. I’m not sure about the efficiency comparison of this versus back propagation but I intend on looking into it (:

# How Does it Work?

It turns out to be really simple to use dual numbers with multivariable functions. The end result is that you want a partial derivative for each variable in the equation, so to do that, you just have a dual number per variable, and process the entire equation for each of those dual numbers separately.

We’ll work through an example. Let’s find the partial derivatives of x and y of the function , at input (5,2).

We’ll start by finding the derivative of x, and then the derivative of y.

# Example: df/dx

We start by making a dual number for our x value, remembering that the real part is the actual value for x, and the dual part is the derivative of x, which is 1:

or:

We multiply that value by itself to get the value, keeping in mind that is zero:

Next we need to multiply that by 3 to get the term:

Putting that aside for a moment, we need to make the term. We start by making our y value:

or:

If you are wondering why it has a zero for the epsilon term, it’s because when we are calculating the partial derivative of x, y is a constant, so has a derivative of zero.

Next, we multiply this y value by itself twice to get the value:

We then multiply it by 2 to get the term:

Now that we have our two terms, we subtract the y term from the x term to get our final result:

This result says that has a value of 59 at location (5,2), and that the derivative of x at that point is 30.

That checks out, let’s move on to the derivative of y!

# Example: df/dy

Calculating the derivative of y is very similar to calculating the derivative of x, except that it’s the x term that has an epsilon value (derivative) of 0, instead of the y term. The y term has the epsilon value of 1 this time as well. We’ll work through it to see how it plays out.

First up, we need to make the value for x:

or:

Next we square it and multiply it by 3 to get the term:

Next we need to make the value for y, remembering that we use an epsilon value of 1 since the derivative of y is 1 this time around.

We cube that value and multiply by 2 to get the term:

Now we subtract the y term from the x term to get the final result:

This result says that has a value of 59 at location (5,2), and that the derivative of y at that point is -24.

That also checks out, so we got the correct value and partial derivatives for the equation.

# Reducing Redundancy

There was quite a bit of redundancy when working through the x and y derivatives wasn’t there? Increasing the number of variables will increase the amount of redundancy too, so it doesn’t scale up well.

Luckily there is a way to address this. Basically, instead of making two dual numbers which have two items, you make them share the real value (since it’s the same for both, as is the work to make it) and append the dual values for x and y to it.

Thus, instead of having:

You have:

Then, in your math or in your program, you treat it as if it’s two different dual numbers packed into one. This lets you do the work for the real number once instead of twice, but still lets you do your dual number work for each variable independently.

While it’s probably easiest to think of these as two dual numbers packed into one value, there is actually a mathematical basis for it as well, which may or may not surprise you.

Check out what happens when we multiply two of these together, keeping in mind that multiplying ANY two epsilon values together becomes zero, even if they are different epsilons:

The interesting thing is that the above result gives you the same values as if you did the same work for two dual numbers individually.

Let’s see this three component dual number in action by re-doing the example again. Note that this pattern scales up to ANY number of variables!

# Example: Both Derivatives (Gradient Vector)

Our goal is to calculate the value and partial derivatives of the function at location (5,2).

First we make our x value:

or:

We square that and multiply it by 3 to get our term:

Next, we make our y value:

or:

We cube it and multiply it by 2 to get our term:

Lastly we subtract the y term from the x term to get our final answer:

The result says that has a value of 59 at location (5,2), and that the derivative of x at that point is 30, and the derivative of y at that point is -24.

Neat, right?!

# Example Code

Here is the example code output:

Here is the code that generated it:

#include <stdio.h> #include <cmath> #include <array> #include <algorithm> #define PI 3.14159265359f #define EPSILON 0.001f // for numeric derivatives calculation template <size_t NUMVARIABLES> class CDualNumber { public: // constructor to make a constant CDualNumber (float f = 0.0f) { m_real = f; std::fill(m_dual.begin(), m_dual.end(), 0.0f); } // constructor to make a variable value. It sets the derivative to 1.0 for whichever variable this is a value for. CDualNumber (float f, size_t variableIndex) { m_real = f; std::fill(m_dual.begin(), m_dual.end(), 0.0f); m_dual[variableIndex] = 1.0f; } // storage for real and dual values float m_real; std::array<float, NUMVARIABLES> m_dual; }; //---------------------------------------------------------------------- // Math Operations //---------------------------------------------------------------------- template <size_t NUMVARIABLES> inline CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> operator + (const CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> &a, const CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> &b) { CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> ret; ret.m_real = a.m_real + b.m_real; for (size_t i = 0; i < NUMVARIABLES; ++i) ret.m_dual[i] = a.m_dual[i] + b.m_dual[i]; return ret; } template <size_t NUMVARIABLES> inline CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> operator - (const CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> &a, const CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> &b) { CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> ret; ret.m_real = a.m_real - b.m_real; for (size_t i = 0; i < NUMVARIABLES; ++i) ret.m_dual[i] = a.m_dual[i] - b.m_dual[i]; return ret; } template <size_t NUMVARIABLES> inline CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> operator * (const CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> &a, const CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> &b) { CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> ret; ret.m_real = a.m_real * b.m_real; for (size_t i = 0; i < NUMVARIABLES; ++i) ret.m_dual[i] = a.m_real * b.m_dual[i] + a.m_dual[i] * b.m_real; return ret; } template <size_t NUMVARIABLES> inline CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> operator / (const CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> &a, const CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> &b) { CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> ret; ret.m_real = a.m_real / b.m_real; for (size_t i = 0; i < NUMVARIABLES; ++i) ret.m_dual[i] = (a.m_dual[i] * b.m_real - a.m_real * b.m_dual[i]) / (b.m_real * b.m_real); return ret; } template <size_t NUMVARIABLES> inline CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> sqrt (const CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> &a) { CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> ret; float sqrtReal = sqrt(a.m_real); ret.m_real = sqrtReal; for (size_t i = 0; i < NUMVARIABLES; ++i) ret.m_dual[i] = 0.5f * a.m_dual[i] / sqrtReal; return ret; } template <size_t NUMVARIABLES> inline CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> pow (const CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> &a, float y) { CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> ret; ret.m_real = pow(a.m_real, y); for (size_t i = 0; i < NUMVARIABLES; ++i) ret.m_dual[i] = y * a.m_dual[i] * pow(a.m_real, y - 1.0f); return ret; } template <size_t NUMVARIABLES> inline CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> sin (const CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> &a) { CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> ret; ret.m_real = sin(a.m_real); for (size_t i = 0; i < NUMVARIABLES; ++i) ret.m_dual[i] = a.m_dual[i] * cos(a.m_real); return ret; } template <size_t NUMVARIABLES> inline CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> cos (const CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> &a) { CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> ret; ret.m_real = cos(a.m_real); for (size_t i = 0; i < NUMVARIABLES; ++i) ret.m_dual[i] = -a.m_dual[i] * sin(a.m_real); return ret; } template <size_t NUMVARIABLES> inline CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> tan (const CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> &a) { CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> ret; ret.m_real = tan(a.m_real); for (size_t i = 0; i < NUMVARIABLES; ++i) ret.m_dual[i] = a.m_dual[i] / (cos(a.m_real) * cos(a.m_real)); return ret; } template <size_t NUMVARIABLES> inline CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> atan (const CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> &a) { CDualNumber<NUMVARIABLES> ret; ret.m_real = tan(a.m_real); for (size_t i = 0; i < NUMVARIABLES; ++i) ret.m_dual[i] = a.m_dual[i] / (1.0f + a.m_real * a.m_real); return ret; } // templated so it can work for both a CDualNumber<1> and a float template <typename T> inline T SmoothStep (const T& x) { return x * x * (T(3.0f) - T(2.0f) * x); } //---------------------------------------------------------------------- // Test Functions //---------------------------------------------------------------------- void TestSmoothStep (float input) { // create a dual number as the value of x CDualNumber<1> x(input, 0); // calculate value and derivative using dual numbers CDualNumber<1> y = SmoothStep(x); // calculate numeric derivative using central differences float derivNumeric = (SmoothStep(input + EPSILON) - SmoothStep(input - EPSILON)) / (2.0f * EPSILON); // calculate actual derivative float derivActual = 6.0f * input - 6.0f * input * input; // show value and derivatives printf("(smoothstep) y=3x^2-2x^3 (x=%0.4f)\n", input); printf(" y = %0.4f\n", y.m_real); printf(" dual# dy/dx = %0.4f\n", y.m_dual[0]); printf(" actual dy/dx = %0.4f\n", derivActual); printf(" numeric dy/dx = %0.4f\n\n", derivNumeric); } void TestTrig (float input) { // create a dual number as the value of x CDualNumber<1> x(input, 0); // sin { // calculate value and derivative using dual numbers CDualNumber<1> y = sin(x); // calculate numeric derivative using central differences float derivNumeric = (sin(input + EPSILON) - sin(input - EPSILON)) / (2.0f * EPSILON); // calculate actual derivative float derivActual = cos(input); // show value and derivatives printf("sin(%0.4f) = %0.4f\n", input, y.m_real); printf(" dual# dy/dx = %0.4f\n", y.m_dual[0]); printf(" actual dy/dx = %0.4f\n", derivActual); printf(" numeric dy/dx = %0.4f\n\n", derivNumeric); } // cos { // calculate value and derivative using dual numbers CDualNumber<1> y = cos(x); // calculate numeric derivative using central differences float derivNumeric = (cos(input + EPSILON) - cos(input - EPSILON)) / (2.0f * EPSILON); // calculate actual derivative float derivActual = -sin(input); // show value and derivatives printf("cos(%0.4f) = %0.4f\n", input, y.m_real); printf(" dual# dy/dx = %0.4f\n", y.m_dual[0]); printf(" actual dy/dx = %0.4f\n", derivActual); printf(" numeric dy/dx = %0.4f\n\n", derivNumeric); } // tan { // calculate value and derivative using dual numbers CDualNumber<1> y = tan(x); // calculate numeric derivative using central differences float derivNumeric = (tan(input + EPSILON) - tan(input - EPSILON)) / (2.0f * EPSILON); // calculate actual derivative float derivActual = 1.0f / (cos(input)*cos(input)); // show value and derivatives printf("tan(%0.4f) = %0.4f\n", input, y.m_real); printf(" dual# dy/dx = %0.4f\n", y.m_dual[0]); printf(" actual dy/dx = %0.4f\n", derivActual); printf(" numeric dy/dx = %0.4f\n\n", derivNumeric); } // atan { // calculate value and derivative using dual numbers CDualNumber<1> y = atan(x); // calculate numeric derivative using central differences float derivNumeric = (atan(input + EPSILON) - atan(input - EPSILON)) / (2.0f * EPSILON); // calculate actual derivative float derivActual = 1.0f / (1.0f + input * input); // show value and derivatives printf("atan(%0.4f) = %0.4f\n", input, y.m_real); printf(" dual# dy/dx = %0.4f\n", y.m_dual[0]); printf(" actual dy/dx = %0.4f\n", derivActual); printf(" numeric dy/dx = %0.4f\n\n", derivNumeric); } } void TestSimple (float input) { // create a dual number as the value of x CDualNumber<1> x(input, 0); // sqrt { // calculate value and derivative using dual numbers CDualNumber<1> y = CDualNumber<1>(3.0f) / sqrt(x); // calculate numeric derivative using central differences float derivNumeric = ((3.0f / sqrt(input + EPSILON)) - (3.0f / sqrt(input - EPSILON))) / (2.0f * EPSILON); // calculate actual derivative float derivActual = -3.0f / (2.0f * pow(input, 3.0f / 2.0f)); // show value and derivatives printf("3/sqrt(%0.4f) = %0.4f\n", input, y.m_real); printf(" dual# dy/dx = %0.4f\n", y.m_dual[0]); printf(" actual dy/dx = %0.4f\n", derivActual); printf(" numeric dy/dx = %0.4f\n\n", derivNumeric); } // pow { // calculate value and derivative using dual numbers CDualNumber<1> y = pow(x + CDualNumber<1>(1.0f), 1.337f); // calculate numeric derivative using central differences float derivNumeric = ((pow(input + 1.0f + EPSILON, 1.337f)) - (pow(input + 1.0f - EPSILON, 1.337f))) / (2.0f * EPSILON); // calculate actual derivative float derivActual = 1.337f * pow(input + 1.0f, 0.337f); // show value and derivatives printf("(%0.4f+1)^1.337 = %0.4f\n", input, y.m_real); printf(" dual# dy/dx = %0.4f\n", y.m_dual[0]); printf(" actual dy/dx = %0.4f\n", derivActual); printf(" numeric dy/dx = %0.4f\n\n", derivNumeric); } } void Test2D (float inputx, float inputy) { // create dual numbers as the value of x and y CDualNumber<2> x(inputx, 0); CDualNumber<2> y(inputy, 1); // z = 3x^2 - 2y^3 { // calculate value and partial derivatives using dual numbers CDualNumber<2> z = CDualNumber<2>(3.0f) * x * x - CDualNumber<2>(2.0f) * y * y * y; // calculate numeric partial derivatives using central differences auto f = [] (float x, float y) { return 3.0f * x * x - 2.0f * y * y * y; }; float derivNumericX = (f(inputx + EPSILON, inputy) - f(inputx - EPSILON, inputy)) / (2.0f * EPSILON); float derivNumericY = (f(inputx, inputy + EPSILON) - f(inputx, inputy - EPSILON)) / (2.0f * EPSILON); // calculate actual partial derivatives float derivActualX = 6.0f * inputx; float derivActualY = -6.0f * inputy * inputy; // show value and derivatives printf("z=3x^2-2y^3 (x = %0.4f, y = %0.4f)\n", inputx, inputy); printf(" z = %0.4f\n", z.m_real); printf(" dual# dz/dx = %0.4f\n", z.m_dual[0]); printf(" dual# dz/dy = %0.4f\n", z.m_dual[1]); printf(" actual dz/dx = %0.4f\n", derivActualX); printf(" actual dz/dy = %0.4f\n", derivActualY); printf(" numeric dz/dx = %0.4f\n", derivNumericX); printf(" numeric dz/dy = %0.4f\n\n", derivNumericY); } } void Test3D (float inputx, float inputy, float inputz) { // create dual numbers as the value of x and y CDualNumber<3> x(inputx, 0); CDualNumber<3> y(inputy, 1); CDualNumber<3> z(inputz, 2); // w = sin(x*cos(2*y)) / tan(z) { // calculate value and partial derivatives using dual numbers CDualNumber<3> w = sin(x * cos(CDualNumber<3>(2.0f)*y)) / tan(z); // calculate numeric partial derivatives using central differences auto f = [] (float x, float y, float z) { return sin(x*cos(2.0f*y)) / tan(z); }; float derivNumericX = (f(inputx + EPSILON, inputy, inputz) - f(inputx - EPSILON, inputy, inputz)) / (2.0f * EPSILON); float derivNumericY = (f(inputx, inputy + EPSILON, inputz) - f(inputx, inputy - EPSILON, inputz)) / (2.0f * EPSILON); float derivNumericZ = (f(inputx, inputy, inputz + EPSILON) - f(inputx, inputy, inputz - EPSILON)) / (2.0f * EPSILON); // calculate actual partial derivatives float derivActualX = cos(inputx*cos(2.0f*inputy))*cos(2.0f * inputy) / tan(inputz); float derivActualY = cos(inputx*cos(2.0f*inputy)) *-2.0f*inputx*sin(2.0f*inputy) / tan(inputz); float derivActualZ = sin(inputx * cos(2.0f * inputy)) / -(sin(inputz) * sin(inputz)); // show value and derivatives printf("w=sin(x*cos(2*y))/tan(z) (x = %0.4f, y = %0.4f, z = %0.4f)\n", inputx, inputy, inputz); printf(" w = %0.4f\n", w.m_real); printf(" dual# dw/dx = %0.4f\n", w.m_dual[0]); printf(" dual# dw/dy = %0.4f\n", w.m_dual[1]); printf(" dual# dw/dz = %0.4f\n", w.m_dual[2]); printf(" actual dw/dx = %0.4f\n", derivActualX); printf(" actual dw/dy = %0.4f\n", derivActualY); printf(" actual dw/dz = %0.4f\n", derivActualZ); printf(" numeric dw/dx = %0.4f\n", derivNumericX); printf(" numeric dw/dy = %0.4f\n", derivNumericY); printf(" numeric dw/dz = %0.4f\n\n", derivNumericZ); } } int main (int argc, char **argv) { TestSmoothStep(0.5f); TestSmoothStep(0.75f); TestTrig(PI * 0.25f); TestSimple(3.0f); Test2D(1.5f, 3.28f); Test3D(7.12f, 8.93f, 12.01f); return 0; }

# Closing

One of the neatest things about dual numbers is that they give precise results. They are not approximations and they are not numerical methods, unlike the central differences method that I compared them to in the example program (More info on numerical derivatives here: Finite Differences). Using dual numbers gives you exact derivatives, within the limitations of (eg) floating point math.

It turns out that backpropagation (the method that is commonly used to train neural networks) is just steepest gradient descent. You can read about that here: Backpropogation is Just Steepest Descent with Automatic Differentiation

That makes me wonder how dual numbers would do in run time speed compared to back propagation as well as numerical methods for getting the gradient to adjust a neural network during training.

If I had to guess, I’d say that dual numbers may be slightly slower than backpropagation, but not as slow as numerical methods which are going to be much, much slower. We’ll see though. It may be much easier to implement neural network learning using dual numbers compared to backpropagation, so may be worth an exploration and write up, even if only to make neural networks a little bit more accessible to people.

Comments, corrections, etc? Let me know in the comments below, or contact me on twitter at @Atrix256