# How to Render the Mandelbrot Set

The Mandelbrot set is a beautiful creation of mathematics discovered by a French-American mathematician named Benoit Mandelbrot. it is also a fractal, meaning that it’s infinitely detailed and that it’s self-similar and made up of smaller versions of itself.

Wikipedia does a better job of explaining the history and the background more than I do so please check out this link for more info!

Mandelbrot Set

I also wrote an HTML5 powered mandelbrot set viewer that you can use to explore the fractal and manipulate colors to create your own mathematical works of art.

HTML5 Mandelbrot Explorer

In this article I’m going to explain how to render a Mandelbrot set yourself.  It’s going to be from a programming slant more than a mathematical slant so if you want the raw unadulterated math, I recommend checking out Wikipedia or other sources.

## Rendering the Mandelbrot Set

The first step is to have some way to draw individual pixels on a canvas of some sort. It doesn’t matter what method you go with, it just matters that you are able to draw pixels somehow.

Various ways include:

• direct pixel accesss in HTML5 (what my Mandelbrot Explorer uses)
• drawing pixels into an image file
• using DirectX or OpenGL to render it to a 2d screen buffer.
• using graph paper, a calculator and some colored pencils to create it by hand (Possible, but ouch! Send me a picture if you actually do this! hehe)

## Viewport

Now that you have a rectangle that you are able to render pixels to, we need to define a viewport.

In the Mandelbrot Set image at the top of this article, my rectangle is about 500×500 pixels big, and the x axis ranges from -2.5 to 2.5 and the y axis also ranges from -2.5 to 2.5.

I like to define my viewport in terms of the center point, and the width and height, so our viewports parameters are a center point of (0,0) and width and height of 5.

We have now established the parameters of our viewport!

We now need to iterate through each pixel in our rectangle and do the following steps for each…

## Pixel Space to Viewport Space

The first thing we need to do is convert from pixel coordinates to viewport coordinates.

How we do that is like this:
ViewportX = ViewportMinX + (PixelX / PixelWidth) * ViewportWidth
ViewportY = ViewportMinY + (PixelY / PixelHeight) * ViewportHeight

After we have converted our pixel’s location from pixel space to viewport space, we are ready to do some math.

## The Magical Mandelbrot Function

Like I mentioned earlier, the Mandelbrot set is a work of mathematical art.  The function itself isn’t very complex but it involves imaginary numbers.  To calculate the Mandelbrot set itself, you plug the viewport location of the pixel into the function.  After that, you take the output of the function and plug it back into the input of the function.  You continue this until the output of the function goes above some value (the common value to use is 2.  You’ll see me compare against 4 because I’m comparing squared numbers).  If the output goes above the threshold, it has essentially “escaped”.

There are pixels which may take a very very very large amount of iterations to escape, and as far as I know, they haven’t proven that all values will escape (I could be wrong though), so besides waiting for the function to “escape”, you should also set a maximum iteration count to keep it from iterating forever (or for a very long time).

The number of iterations it took to escape is what you use to set the pixel color for that pixel.

Here is some code (pseudo javascript) to show you the details of that process:

```var g_maxIterations = 255; //TODO: set this to however many iterations you want to allow maximum
var currentX;  //TODO: need to set this to the viewport X location of the current pixel
var currentY;  //TODO: need to set this to the viewport Y location of the current pixel

var z = 0;
var zi = 0;
var inset = true;
var numInterations = 0;

var newz;
var newzi;

for(indexIter=0; indexIter 4)
{
inset = false;
numInterations = indexIter;
indexIter = g_maxIterations;
}
}

if (inset)
{
//we never escaped, this pixel is the default color
//TODO: render a default color pixel
}
else
{
//we escaped!  numInterations is how many iterations it took
//TODO: convert iterations to a color and render the pixel
}
```

## Colorizing The Pixel

There are several ways you could turn an iteration count into a color for a pixel. There are some ways listed below, but this is definitely not an exhaustive list! Play around with your own techniques and see what sort of interesting things you can create!

• Make a maximum iteration time of 255.  Make your output image be an 8bit greyscale (or color palleted) image, taking the iteration count and writing that out raw as the output color.
• Make several ranges of iteration values (for instance… 0-255, 256-511, 512-767, etc) where you define a full RGB color at each edge of the value ranges.  From there, figure out where your iteration count falls within the value ranges, and do a lerp between the color to the left and the color to the right based on your distance in the specific value range.  This way, you have smoothly blending color gradients and can go well beyond 255 maximum iterations.  I use a variation of this in my HTML5 Mandelbrot Explorer.
• Use arbitrary math functions to figure out the RGB of each pixel.  Such as R = Iterations % 256, G = (Iterations * 3) % 256, B = (Iterations * 7 + 39) % 256.

After you have the color for your pixel, you are done. Render that pixel, then move to the next until you have rendered them all.

## Zooming and Panning (Scrolling)

By virtue of setting up a viewport as a centerpoint and a width and height, and making the code use that information to convert from pixel space to viewport space, we have made it really simple to implement zooming and panning.

To zoom in, just set your viewport width and height to be smaller (like divide them by 2 for instance).   To zoom out, set your viewport width and height to be larger.  You want to make sure and keep the same aspect ratio (width / height) in your viewport as your rendering rectangle to avoid distortion though, so be careful.   OR, you may want the distortion… it’s up to you (:

To pan the screen, or scroll it left, right, up or down, you just change the centerpoint to be more to the left, the right, higher, or lower.

Very simple, but it is really fun to scroll around and zoom in and out on the fractal to discover new and interesting features to share with your friends.

If you zoom in far enough, you might notice that at some point you have vertical or horizontal lines instead of the fractal shape, and that if you zoom in a little bit more, you’ll get a solid color.

You might ask yourself “Hey, I thought he said fractals were infinitely detailed?”

Well they are infinitely detailed, and in theory you could zoom in FOREVER and always see more and more things, but computers themselves don’t have infinite precision (it would take a computer infinitely large to let you zoom in infinitely), and you are just seeing the edge of the precision of your computer.

If you are using a language like C++, you can change your code to use doubles instead of floats to get a little more breathing room, or another option is to use a scientific mathematics library that is capable of a lot more precision than floats or doubles.

## That’s All!

That’s really all there is to it, not that complex is it?

As I keep mentioning, I made something that allows you to explore the Mandelbrot Set in your browser.  You can find that here: Mandelbrot Explorer

# Bias And Gain Are Your Friend

Often times in game development, you have situations where you want an object to move from one place to another, you want something to grow or shrink from one size to another, you want a color to change from A to B, or any other one of the myriad tasks where you want to do something from A to B over time (or over distance).

That’s pretty abstract but let’s take some examples:

1. You want to move a camera along a straight line from A to B
2. You want to raise the lighting from dark to bright in a room
3. When the player clicks an icon, you want to grow a window from small to big
4. You want to cross fade one skeletal animation to another via the blend weights of the animations (an example from my Anatomy of a Skeletal Animation System articles)
5. You want to use a gradient in a shader for some effect.

When you are doing these things, it’s real easy to take a percent based on time or distance and just use that percent raw to make a linear effect.   Often times a linear effect just isn’t good enough though because it looks or feels mechanical instead of organic, and unpolished.

Often times the way these things are softened and made more organic is by giving a content creator a curve editor so that they can soften the edges, speed up or slow down the processes over time or distance.

Many game engines don’t come with curve editors that can be easily used for these purposes, and other times you just want to deal with it in code for one reason or another, so don’t have the luxury of giving a content creator carte blanche with a curve editor.

There are a couple techniques for handling these situations but I want to talk to you about 2 of my favorite techniques, which are Ken Perlin’s bias and gain functions.  I actually use Christophe Schlick’s faster approximation functions (as seen in game programming gems 2), but the end result is the same thing.

If you want to skip ahead and see these things in action, I made an interactive demonstration about these functions, check em out! HTML5 Bias and gain

## Bias – Not as in bigotry

The bias function takes in a number between 0 and 1 as input (I like to think of this as the percent) and also takes a number between 0 and 1 as the “tuning parameter” which defines how the function will bend your curve.

With a value of 0.5, the percent you put in is the percent you get out (so is linear), but if you put in a number > 0.5 or < 0.5, that's when the interesting things happen.

Shown here are graphs of the bias function with parameters of 0.5, 0.25, 0.75 and 0.97:

In javascript, the code for bias looks like this:

```function GetBias(time,bias)
{
return (time / ((((1.0/bias) - 2.0)*(1.0 - time))+1.0));
}
```

## Gain – Not as in my weight during the holidays

The gain function is like bias in that it takes in both a 0 to 1 input (I think of this as the percent as well) and also takes a number between 0 and 1 as the “tuning parameter”.

Again, with a value of 0.5, the percent you put in is the percent you get out (again, this makes it linear) but if you put in other numbers, you get interesting curves.

Here are graphs of the gain function with the same parameters of 0.5, 0.25, 0.75 and 0.97:

In javascript, the code for gain looks like the below. You might notice it makes use of the GetBias function. Gain is just bias and reflected bias.

```function GetGain(time,gain)
{
if(time < 0.5)
return GetBias(time * 2.0,gain)/2.0;
else
return GetBias(time * 2.0 - 1.0,1.0 - gain)/2.0 + 0.5;
}
```

## That’s It!

Well that’s about it, pretty straightforward stuff. Wherever you find yourself using a percent in your code, you can try passing it through a bias / gain function (and optionally exposing the tuning parameter to content creators) and see if you can make things feel a little more organic and polished.

Sometimes its the little things that make the biggest difference!

One again, the link to the interactive example of these things is at:
HTML5 Bias and Gain

# Anatomy of a Skeletal Animation System Part 3

This is part three of “Anatomy of a Skeletal Animation System”

## Animation System Optimizations and Features

Here are some various animation system optimizations and techniques that you might find useful…

If you are even mildly comfortable writing multithreaded code, this one is fairly easy to implement.

Basically every animated model that needs an update goes into a queue every frame.  (Things that haven’t been on screen for a little while could be exempt from the list so you don’t waste time on things that aren’t being rendered)

At some point in your main loop, you do the animation sampling / anim blend tree blending / etc work to come up with the final bone group. You do this by grabbing the first model in the queue, processing it, then moving to the next model.

Your main loop doesn’t continue until all of the models have been processed.

Now, imagine that you had other worker threads also grabbing models from the queue and processing them, and that the main thread will wait to continue the main loop until the queue was empty and all models had been processed.

TA-DA! You are done and have multithreaded animation blending. It can help A LOT, depending on how many hardware threads you have available for helping work.

### Bias / Gain Curves in Anim Blends

With normal animation blending, it’s a linear crossfade from one animation to another.

Sometimes, an animator can make things look nicer if they have the option of doing non linear crossfading.   One nice option for doing this is exposing a bias and gain parameter to the blend in / out parameters.

Bias and gain are great ways of letting content creators create non linear curves for a variety of uses.  Ken Perlin did a lot of work in this area, but in “Game Programming Gems 2”, a guy named Cristophe Schlick presented some simplified, quick equations to calculate approximations of bias and gain.

I highly recommend checking that out and using them for this, and everything else in your game. Using bias and gain you can do things like have your camera move from point A to point B, but start out fast and slow down as it gets closer to B, giving it a nice organic feel to it, instead of a rigid lerp.  With bias and gain you pass in a % and get out a different %.  Real simple to use and extremely useful in every part of your game just about.

Here’s an interactive demonstration of the bias/gain functions I made. The source code for the functions are there too:
HTML5 Bias and Gain

### Round Robin Anim Evaluation

There are some situations when you don’t need every model to have perfectly up to date animation data every single frame. One example of this is if you are simulating the game world on a server, where skeletal animation data doesn’t need to be perfectly up to date since network latency already makes it somewhat innacurate.

In these cases, one thing you could do is split the list of models you need to update into perhaps 4 different lists. Then, each frame, you only process one of the 4 lists, thus reducing your animation CPU load down to 25% of what it was. Quick and easy way to save some real CPU time quickly if you don’t need the most up to date animation data all the time.

### Pose Sharing

Sometimes you have a lot of different models where many of the models are preforming the same animations – such as if you have a crowd of people in a crowded area.

One way to deal with this is to let some of the people doing the same animations SHARE their computed animation data.

If you are in a crowd, and there’s lots of different looking people walking all sorts of different directions, you aren’t going to easily notice that there are people who are using the exact same bone data, but facing different directions.

Going this route, if you have a group of 4 let’s say that all share the same bone data, you only need to calculate it for one person, and the rest of the group uses the data already calculated.

Less animations to sample and blend so you gain some CPU back.

### Skeleton LODing

As things get farther away, or smaller, the smaller details are less noticeable. Because of this, you can “remove” bones from a skeleton as a model is farther away. I mentioned this briefly with facial animations, but the same is true of arm bones, leg bones, hand bones, etc.

You just have to make sure your anim system is able to handle LODing out bones gracefully (no popping) and efficiently (no excessive processing to get a lower LOD skeleton, it should just be a flag on the bones or something).

## Runtime Debugging Essentials

Here are some debugging tools that I’ve found essential in debugging day to day animation bugs (popping, twitching, incorrect animations, etc).

### Real Time Info On Screen

You really need the ability to show some kind of status on screen for a specified model. The info should show what animations are playing on which animation controllers, the current time of the animation controller, the playback rate of the controller, the state of the state machine, etc.

Using this, when you see a pop, you might see that for a fraction of a second, that an animation switches from one animation to another, then back to the first. From there you can go on debugging it further.

### Timeline Log

Sometimes it’s useful to be able to turn on animation logging for a specified model. This way, you can generally log more info than you can on the screen in real time, and can also take your sweet time looking at very small intervals of time to see what went wrong and why.

Very useful.

### Show the Bones

Sometimes you really just need to be able to look at the skeleton to see an issue more clearly, or be able to determine if the problem is with a model or the animation data.

Having a way to turn on bone rendering such that it draws 2d (unprojected) lines on the screen showing the bones of a specified model is very useful. Also sometimes it’s nice to be able to see the bones of all the animation data that went into the final blended pose, instead of just seeing the final blended pose.

### Control Time Itself!

Lastly, sometimes it’s really useful to be able to slow down time to see a problem in greater detail. Rarely, it’s also useful to be able to speed up time. Having the ability to do both while the game running can be a really big help.

## That’s All She Wrote

That, and MURDER I mean.

I hope you enjoyed these articles on the anatomy of a skeletal animation system. Drop me a line or post a comment if you have any questions or comments (:

# Anatomy of a Skeletal Animation System Part 2

This is part two of “Anatomy of a Skeletal Animation System”

## Animation Controller v3 – Bone Groups

In part 1, we talked about how to make a skeletal animation system that was able to play smooth, non popping animations on a model, it could communicate back to the engine to play sound effects, spawn objects in specific spots, and many other things as well.  What it could not do however, was play a different animation on the upper body and lower body.

To solve this, instead of having a single animation controller for our model, we need to have multiple animation controllers, where each controller controls a specific set of bones.  Note that multiple controllers should be able to affect the same set of bones, and in the end result, a bone’s position is made up by blending the data from all animation controllers that affect it.

Each animation controller should have a blend weight so that it can be blended in and out to keep animation motion smooth and continuous, and also the blend weighting allows you to turn on and off specific animation controllers as needed.

Some great example uses for this are…

• Having a seperate animation controller for the upper and lower body so that they can work independently (the lower body can look like it’s jumping, without having to care if the upper body is firing a gun or not).
• Having a seperate full body animation controller that affects all bones.  In most situations, this animation controller would be off, but in the rare cases that you want to play a full body animation, you turn this one on and play an animation on it.
• Having a facial animation anim controller that only turns on if the camera is close enough to a characters’s face.  This way, if you look closely at another player, you can see their face moving, but if you are far away from them, the game engine doesn’t bother animating the facial bones since you can’t see them very well anyways.

The order that these animation controllers are evaluated should be explicit (instead of left up to load order or things like that).  You want to be very clear about which animation controllers over-ride which other animation controllers for the case of having multiple on at the same time, affecting the same bones.

For the sake of efficiency, when trying to blend the animation data together from each animation controller that affects that bone, you should start at the last fully weight (100% weight) anim controller in the anim controller list.  This way, you don’t bother evaluating animations for anim controllers that are just going to be completely masked out by other animation controllers.

If there is no full weight anim controller in the list that affects the specific bone, initialize the bone data to the “T-Pose” animation position before blending the other anim controller bone data on top of it.

We now have a very robust animation system, but it isn’t quite there yet.  Interacting with this animation system from game code means you having to tell specific game controllers when to play specific animations.   This is quite cumbersome and not very maintainable.  Ideally, the animation logic would be separated from the game play logic. Besides making the code more maintainable, this means that non animation programmers will be able to write game play code that interacts with the animation system which is a big win for everyone. Fewer development bottlenecks.

## Animation Selection

There are two good techniques i’ve seen for separating the logic and preforming animation selection for you.

The first way is via “animation properties” and the second way is by using an animation state machine. There are pros and cons to each.

#### Animation Properties

For the animation properties method, you essentially have a list of enums that describe the player’s state.  These enums include things such as being able to say whether the player is crouched or standing, whether the player is unarmed, holding a pistol, or holding a rifle, or even how injured the player is (not injured, somewhat injured, or near death).

The game play code would be in charge of making sure these enums were set to the right values, and the animation controller(s) would use these values to determine the appropriate animations to play.

For instance, the game code may set the enum values to this:

• WeaponType = Rifle (vs Unarmed, Pistol, etc)
• PlayerHealth = NearDeath (vs healthy, injured, etc)
• MovementType = WalkForward (vs Idle, Running, LungeRight, etc)

From here, the animation system takes over.

The lower body animation controller perhaps only cares about “MovementType” and “PlayerHealth”.  It notices that the player is walking forward (WalkForward) and that they have very low health (NearDeath).  From this, it uses a table that animators created in advance that says for this combination of animation properties, the lower body animation controller should play the “WalkNearDeathFwd” animation.  So, the lower body animation controller obliges and plays that animation for the lower body bones.

The upper body animation controller perhaps just cares about WeaponAction, WeaponType and PlayerHealth.  It notices that the player has a rifle, they aren’t shooting it, and they have very low health.  From this, the upper body animation controller looks into it’s animation properties table and sees that it should play the “RifleIdleInjured” animation, so it plays that animation on the upper body bones.

The logic of game play and animation are completely seperate, and the animators have a lot of control over what animations to play in which situations.

Once again, you’d want an editor of some sort for animators to set up these animation properties tables so that it’s easier for them to work with, it verifies the data to reduce the bug count, and everyone wins.

Your tool also ought to pack each animation properties table (upper body, lower body, facial animation, full body animation, etc) into some run-time friendly structure, such as perhaps a balanced decision tree to facilitate quick lookups based on animation properties.

#### Animation State Machine

Another way to handle animation selection is to have the animation controllers run animation state machines, having the game code send animation events to the state machines. Each state of the state machine corresponds to a specific animation.

When the player presses the crouch button for instance, it could send an event to all of the animation controllers saying so, maybe ACTION_BEGINCROUCH.

Depending on the logic of the state that each anim controller state machine is in, it may respond to that event, or ignore it.

The upper body anim controller may be in the “Idle” state. The logic for the idle state says that it doesn’t do anything if it recieves the ACTION_BEGINCROUCH event, so it does nothing and keeps doing the animation it was doing before.

The lower body anim controller may also be in a state named “Idle”. The logic for the lower body idle state says that if it recieves the ACTION_BEGINCROUCH event, that it should transition to the “StartCrouch” state. So, it transitions to that state which says to play the “CrouchBegin” animation (also says to ignore all incoming events perhaps), and when that animation is done, it should automatically transition to the “CrouchIdle” state, which it does, and that state says to play the “Crouching” animation, so it does that, waiting for various events to happen, including an ACTION_ENDCROUCH event to be sent from game code when the player lets go of the crouch button.

The interesting thing about the anim state machine is that it gives content creators a lot more control over the actual control of the player himself (they can say when the player is allowed to crouch for instance!) which can be either a good or bad thing, depending on your needs, use cases and skill sets of your content creators.

Going this route, you are going to want a full on state machine editor for content people to be able to set up states, the rules for state switching, and they should be able to see a model and simulate state switches to see how things look. If you DO make such an editor, it’s also a great place to allow them to define and edit bone groups. You might even be able to combine it with the key string editor and make a one stop shop editor for animation (and beyond).

## Animation Controller v4 – Animation Blend Trees

At this point, our animation system is in pretty good shape, but we can do a bit better before calling it shippable.

The thing we can do to really spruce it up is instead of dealing with individual animations (for blending, animation selection, etc), is to replace them with animation blend trees like the below:

In the animation blend tree above, you can see that it’s playing two animations (FireGun and GunSight) and blending them together to create the final bone data.

As you can imagine, you might have different nodes that preformed different functionality which would result in lots of different kinds of animations using the same animation blend tree.

You will be in good shape if you make a nice animation blend tree editor where a content creator can create an animation blend tree, set parameters on animation blend tree nodes, and preview their work within that editor to be able to quickly iterate on their changes.  Again, without this tool, everyone’s lives will be quite a bit harder, and a little less happy so it’s in your interest to invest the effort!

Some really useful animation nodes for use in the blend trees might include:

• PlayAnimation – definitely needed!
• AnimationSequence – This node has N number of “children” and will play each child in order from 1 to N in a sequence.  You may optionally specify (in the editor) that you want the children chosen at random and you specify a weighting to each child for the random choosing.  This is useful for “idle animations” so that periodically an idle character will do silly things.
• AimGrid – this animation node uses the player data to see yaw and pitch of the player’s aim.  It uses this information to figure out how to blend between a grid of 9 animations of the player pointing in the main directions to give a proper resulting aim.  This node has 9 children, which specify the animations that specify the following aiming animations: Up Left, Up, Up Right, Left, Forward, Right, Down Left, Down, Down Right.  Note that since this is a generalized anim blend tree, these child nodes can be ANY type of animation node, they aren’t required to be a “PlayAnimation” node.  This in essence is the basis of parametric animation (which i mentioned at the beginning of part 1), so this is a way to get some parametric animation into your system without having to go full bore on it.
• IK / FK Nodes – get full or partial ragdoll on your model.  Also get it to do IK solving to position hands correctly for specified targets and such.
• BlendBySpeed – You give N number of children, and movement speeds for each child.  This animation node will choose the correct animation, or blend between the correct animations, based on the current traveling speed of the player.  This way you get a smooth blend between walk, run and sprint animations and the player can move at whatever speed they ought to (perhaps the speed is defined by the pathing system, or the player’s input).  To solve the problem of feet “dancing” as they blend, you need to make sure the footfalls happen on the same time (in %) on each animation that will blend together.  This way, the animations don’t fight eachother, and the feet will appear to move properly.
• BlendByHealth – if you want the player to walk differently when they are injured, this node could be used to specify various walk animations with matching health levels so that it will blend between them (for upper or lower body or whatever else) as is appropriate for the player’s current health level.
• Additive Blending – to get gun recoils and such

As you can see, animation blend trees have quite a bit of power.  They are also very technical which means engineers may need to help out content folk in making good trees to resolve some edge case bugs.  In my experience, animators are often very technical folk themselves, so can do quite a bit on their own generally.

Combine anim blend trees with the animation selection systems (FSM or anim properties) and the ability to smoothly blend an animation controller between it’s internal animations (or anim trees) it’s playing and you have a really robust, high quality animation system.

Often time with this work flow, an animator will just say “hey i need an anim node which can do X”, so an animation engineer creates the node and the animators start using it to do interesting things.  No need for an engineer to be deeply involved in the process of making the animation work like the animator wants, or having to worry about triggering it in the right situations etc.

Sure there will be bugs, and some things will be more complex than this, but by and large, it’s a very low hassle system that very much empowers content creators, and removes engineers from needing to be involved in most changes – which is a beautiful thing.

## End of Part 2

This is the end of part 2. In the next and final part, we’ll talk about a few other miscellaneous features and optimizations.

# Anatomy of a Skeletal Animation System Part 1

This is part one of “Anatomy of a Skeletal Animation System”

There is quite a bit of information out there on the basics of skeletal animation, including how to export and read animation and model data, how to animate bones and thus transform a mesh, how to blend bone data together and other related animation topics.

However, there is a lot less information out there about how to set up a system to use these techniques in a realistic way, such as you might find in your average modern 3d video game.

I myself have been an animation programmer on a few games including an open world unreal engine game called “This is Vegas” (unfortunately cancelled due to Midway going bankrupt) and also a multiplayer only first person shooter called “Gotham City Impostors” which was released earlier this year for PC, 360 and PS3.  The info I’m presenting is based on experience developing those games, as well as info i gathered from other developers or read about in books or online.

In this article I’m going to assume you already know how to get animation bone data into memory, how to use that animation data to animate models (meshes), and also how to blend animation bone data together.  I’m going to start off with the most simple animation system possible and slowly introduce features until we end up at something that would be fully featured for a typical modern game.

The “next generation” of skeletal animation seems like it’s going to be heavily based on parametric animation, and while we will TOUCH on the basics of parametric animation, we won’t dig into it very much beyond that.   If you are making a next gen AAA title, parametric animation may possibly be for you (and maybe not), but with the rise of 3d in flash, the rise of mobile games, and also indie game development, I think traditional pose driven skeletal animation is here to stay at least for a while.

Depending on the needs of your project, and how high a quality bar you want vs how much CPU time you want to spend on animation, some of these features may not be appropriate.  Feel free to take what is useful to you, and leave what isn’t.  Every game is different.

## Animation Controller v1 – Super Simple

The simplest point we will start out is that if you have a mesh with an animation controller on it (to control what animations should play on it and such), it has these features:

• If you tell it to play a looping animation, it will continue playing that looping animation forever.
• If you tell it to play a non looping animation, it will play the animation and have some way of notifying you when the animation is done.  This is either by having it call a callback when it’s done, or by setting some flag on itself saying that the animation is done (won’t ever get set on a looping animation)
• You should be able to tell it a playback multiplier to play the animation at, such as if you tell it to play at 3.0, it will play 3 times as fast, or if you tell it to play at 0.5, it will play half as fast and look like slow motion.
• If you tell it to play an animation while another animation is playing, it will instantly stop the animation it’s playing and start playing the new animation.

With this simple animation system, we could conceivably make a game that has animated characters.

That being said, the animation system is lacking in a few ways:

1.  You can only play full body animations, meaning if you want the lower body to look like it’s jumping, and the upper body to look like it’s firing a rifle, you have to make an animation that looks like that.  If you want the same thing, but you want the lower body to look like it’s standing around while the upper body is firing a rifle, you have to make an entirely different animation that looks like that!  The permutations of actions can get quite large and you have to decide in advance which animation you want to use.  That is, when the player is jumping, they cant change their mind that they suddenly want to start shooting.
2. When you switch animations, there is visible “popping”.  Popping is when a bone goes from doing one thing to doing something else instantly.  It looks like the bone teleported and is very visible to players.  It looks buggy and unpolished.
3. If you are doing something like having the player throw a grenade, you have no way of knowing when to actually spawn the grenade model, and where to spawn it.  You could “hard code” it to spawn at the same place relative to the player each time, when the animation stops playing, but that is pretty hackish and not very maintainable.

Lets start off by working on solving problem #3 of not being able to specify where to spawn a grenade or when to spawn it.

## Keyframe Strings

To solve the problem of WHEN to spawn it, a feature common to nearly all animation systems is the ability to put game engine events on animation key frames.

This way, when the arm is at the correct position in the throw animation, someone would be able to put an event like “throw grenade” on that animation key.  When the animation reaches that animation frame, it sends the message to the game engine, which can then create a grenade (with any specified parameters to the event).

Often times I’ve seen this implemented as an actual string that is associated with an animation key frame.  The strings might be things like:

Playsound Laugh.wav   (to play a sound to go along with the animation)

SpawnPhysicsProjectile  Grenade.mdl 0 0 5   (to spawn a projectile with the specified mesh and velocity vector)

FootFallSound (This would tell the engine to play a footstep sound, based on the material the player was standing on, such as a metalic sound if on metal, or a duller thud if walking on dirt)

You could also use it to hide and show attachments or a myriad of other things.  Basically you can use it for anything that you want to be tied to an animation.

Usually you’ll want some kind of editor for animators and other content creators to be able to associate these key strings with specific key frames.   If they have to work with a text file where they have to hand enter times and key strings associated with those times, it’s going to be really tedious and they are going to be sad.  Also, it will be very error prone which makes everyone sad when it generates more bugs than it needs to, slowing down dev time.

On the topic of creating unnecessary bugs, while i’ve often seen keystrings implemented as actual strings, it’s actually a lot less error prone if you have some kind of structured input system in your key string editor.

For instance, instead of them typing a command name and supplying any required parameters, it would be a lot better for them to have to choose a key string command from a drop down list.  When they choose one, it should display any parameters that might be needed, and have some way of validating that their input is valid.

This editor should be tightly coupled with your game engine.  Example ways for doing this including having a shared header file that defines all key string commands and what parameters they require, or having the key string editor load a game dll to get at the data that way.

If you have to manually maintain the tool to match game code, it will often get out of sync and cause you pain you don’t need.  Avoiding that pain means you can work on developing more features instead of fighting reoccurring bugs, and means QA can focus on finding harder to find bugs.  In the end it means a better product which is great for the company, your continued paycheck, and the player’s experience.

Some other potential bugs can come up with key frames that I don’t have a good answer for, it’s just something you have to mindful of.

One of these bugs is that when an animation is interrupted, a key frame might not get hit when you expect a key frame to get hit.  For instance if an animation attaches something to a players hand, and at the end of the animation hides that attached object, if you interrupt the animation midway through, it won’t get hidden and the attachment will be stuck to the hand as the player does other things – which looks very weird.  Your best bet is to design things in such a way that if key strings are missed, it isn’t a problem.  Not always possible with all features unfortunately though…

Another problem that comes up when you have more advanced anim systems is that you may be blending out an animation which is no longer relevant, but while it is blending out, it hits a key frame.  For instance if you a player is holstering a weapon, but blending out a fire animation that got interupted, you may get a “firegun” key string command, when you really don’t want it because it’s not relevant anymore.  Sometimes you would want a key string to fire in that case though, so there is no real global solution to the problem that I’m aware of.

## Sockets

Now that we have a way of knowing WHEN to spawn a grenade in a grenade throw animation, we don’t know WHERE to spawn it.  This is where sockets come in – no I’m not talking about TCP/IP or UDP sockets!

A seemingly obvious solution is probably to say which bone to spawn the grenade on in the “throw grenade” animation key string.    An issue here though is that maybe if you spawn it right on the “rhand” bone, it might clip through the hand (inter-penetrate the hand) and look sloppy.  Also, for other use cases, you might want to attach something where there isn’t a bone nearby.

Another seemingly obvious solution might be to add extra bones to the animation data that aren’t tied to any real geometry.  This way, you can use the bones to attach things to, or spawn things at, but they aren’t tied to any real model geometry so you can make them move however you want.

The problem with this solution is that you are paying the cost of animating those bones even if you aren’t using them for anything.  Enter sockets!

Sockets are a transformation (translation and rotation) away from a specified bone.  They are usually only calculated on demand so that when you aren’t using them, you don’t pay a price for having them.

This way, sockets act as very cheap attachment / reference points on a model during animations to attach other models to (such as capes, helmets, guns, grenades).

When a key string command takes a socket or bone as a parameter, you should have it accept either a bone or a socket.  They should be usable interchangeably, because sometimes you really do want to attach something to a bone, and you shouldn’t make an animator make an extra socket just to make it match a bone.

We now have a way of specifying WHEN to spawn a grenade (via a key string), and also WHERE to spawn it (specifying a socket to spawn it at as a parameter to the key string command).

## Animation Controller v2 – Blending

I mentioned popping earlier and said it was caused by a bone changing where it is or how it’s moving by a drastic amount in a single frame.  If you’ve read my DIY Synth articles, you probably remember how important in audio programming it is to make sure that your sound data stays continuous.   The same is true of animation data, you have to make sure that bone motion / position stays continuous always, or else you’ll get popping.

Just like in audio programming, you use envelopes to help keep things continuous when you add a new animation into the mix, or remove an old animation.

For instance, If a model is playing one animation and you tell it to play another, the new animation should start at a blend weight of 0.0 and slowly increase while the old animation decreases from a blend weight of 1.0 down to 0.0.  This gives you a nice smooth blend between two animations and works for MOST animations (more on that in a second).

Typically, when crossfading from one animation to another, the magic number is to blend over 0.2 seconds, but certain uses may warrant a longer or shorter blend time.  You might also blend out the old animation at a different rate than you blend in the new animation.  Give your animators the option to choose so they can do whatever they need.  They will be happy that they have the control, and you will be happy that you don’t have to one off program things all the time for them.  Everyone wins!

What happens if you want to play an animation while an animation blend is in progress already?  0.2 seconds of blend time sounds like a short amount of time, but this actually comes up ALL THE TIME.

There are two ways to deal with this issue that I’m going to talk about.

The first way to deal with this problem is to keep a list of all the animations that are currently playing, so that if you tell the animation controller to play a bunch of different animations really quickly, it will end up sampling a bunch of different animations as various  ones blend out, and the final one is blending in.  This can result in A LOT of animation sampling which can take a serious toll on your game’s performance.  I encountered a bug on a game I worked on once that caused around 100 animations to be getting sampled on a single model for several frames due to this problem and it made the game tank HARD.

The second way to deal with this, and how I like to implement it usually, is to make it so only two animations can play at once (a main animation and a blend animation) and you have another field on the animation controller which says what the next animation  to blend in is.

Going this route, when you say to play a new animation while a blend is in progress, it goes into the “next animation” field.  When the current blend is done, that next animation will blend in and the last one will blend out.

If there is already another animation in the “next animation field”, it’s replaced and it’s never seen.

This way, only two animations will be sampled / blended at a time maximum, yet you will get a perfectly smooth blending between animations, and the controls will still feel fairly snappy, although there may be a noticeable delay in control response if animations change a lot really often.  You’ll have to make a judgement call about the needs of your game.

Lastly, I said blending works nicely for most animations but not all.  One exception to this rule is when you try to blend different lower body animations together, such as trying to blend a walk animation and a run animation together.  Often times, the feet will be in different places and when you blend them, it makes the feet look like they are doing a little stuttering dance and it looks ugly.  I’ll talk about getting around this specific problem in the next part, but as a preview, the short version of the solution is to make sure the feet are in the same positions at the same time for the two animations.

## End of Part 1

At this point we have a fairly nice animation system but it isn’t quite ready yet. The most glaring problem we have is that we can only play full body animations still, which is not acceptable.  A real animation system NEEDS to be able to play different animations on different sets of bones independently.

We’ll tackle that problem, and others, in part 2.

# Encryption 101: Realistic Security

This is the fifth article in a series on the basics of cryptography:

DISCLAIMER: These articles are meant for educational purposes only. The methods explained here are meant only to illustrate the basic concepts of cryptography and may or may not be suitable in real world applications. For serious applications such as financial transactions, I recommend hiring security professionals and also getting a lawyer involved. Use this info and code at your own risk, I claim no responsibility!

If you want more in depth information about cryptography than these introductory articles provide, I highly recommend a book called Applied Cryptography by Bruce Schneier. That book literally almost didnt get published because the NSA didnt want the info getting out into the public. Yay for the 1st amendment!

## Realistic Security

“Everyone has a plan ’till they get punched in the mouth.” — Mike Tyson

Cryptography is really awesome, and as a friend of mine said today  (BOOOOOORIIIIIIIS your grandma is calling you!) , there’s a certain mathematical purity to it that’s really appealing.

However, in most security systems, cryptography is not the bottleneck. There’s often way easier things to attack and often you just need to defeat the weakest link in the chain to break open the whole thing.

A popular and successful method of attacking secure systems is something called Social Engineering which you see a lot of in movies like “mission impossible” and “sneakers”.

Social engineering is when you chat up the receptionist and get her to give you info she really ought not to give out, or when you call a company claiming to be maintenance and asking for the door code to get in after hours. Often much easier than trying to factor gigantic primes or the like 😛

Beyond social engineering, there is also physical security to watch out for. I attended DEF CON in vegas for a few years with my good buddy LagGod and learned some really interesting things.  DEF CON has gotten pretty packed in recent years but i highly recommend going if you are at all interested in security. Lots of really talented people on both sides of the fence (attackers aka black hats, and defenders aka white hats) and even some feds and random technophiles thrown in. Here’s two really memorable security lessons I learned at those conferences that really put security into perspective for me.

## Hacking Into a Wifi Network the Easy Way

Note: this no longer works as advertised, thanks to advancements in wifi security technology, but the principles are still interesting and could work in other situations you may find yourself in.  Also, it’s good to know weakness of systems past and present to better protect other systems.  Otherwise, only the criminals have guns and we are all screwed 😛

Ok so lets say that you want to hack into a company’s network, and lets say that they have a wireless router where when you first try to access it, you are presented with a web browser login screen to type in your username and password.

How wifi networks used to work is that if you were trying to connect to a wifi network, it would pick the router that had the strongest signal that was broadcasting the network id that you wanted to connect to.

What this means is that you as a hacker could drive into the parking lot of a company and broadcast their network id with a really strong signal.  Then, when people tried to use their network, the traffic would be directed to your machine.

If you saved the html of their login page before turning on your fake network, you would be able to present a web page to the people hitting your network that looked exactly like the login page they were used to seeing, except that you could take all those usernames and passwords they entered, and log them to a text file!

I’m not sure how they solved this problem, but you could probably do something with public key encryption to make sure that everyone who is broadcasting a network id is actually legitimately part of that wireless network.

## Defeating Biometrics

Again this is somewhat dated info, but it’s still pretty interesting, and possibly useful for other situations.

It used to be that finger print scanners were a lot simpler (some cheap ones might still be). It used to be that if you mashed a gummy bear onto a finger print scanner, that the scanner would pick up the oily fingerprint of the last person that used it, which surely is a valid user, and so, the door would open, the laptop would unlock, or whatever else.

They fixed that problem by having it detect heat, listen for a heartbeat, and probably lots of other secret or publicized ways, but it used to work pretty regularly!

Something else to say about biometrics is that despite the complexity of the actions they preform, I’ve been told that often times there is just a single wire going into them, and a single wire going out of them. For all those fancy actions, all the thing does in the end is complete a circuit of two wires. If you really need to get in somewhere, you are likely able to smash open the box and connect the wires, circumventing the “infallible” biometrics reader.

## Final Notes on Security

Here are some final words on security.

•  There is no such thing as perfect security, there is only good enough security.  The only way to get perfect security is to lock your computer in a safe and drop it into the Marianas Trench (although I hear you have to watch out for James Cameron these days).
• Good enough security often means just making sure you aren’t the low hanging fruit.  If you are more difficult to attack than your peers, you are safer than they are.  if you and someone else are running from a lion, you don’t need to outrun the lion, you just need to ourtun the other guy!
• If your security is based on the fact that your algorithm is secret, that is called “Security Through Obscurity” and is really weak security.  You should assume your attacker knows the details of everything for better security.  Also, secret algorithms don’t get peer reviewed, so weak techniques don’t get weeded out.  Don’t forget that people STILL haven’t cracked the 72 bit RC5 message.  A single message with a 9 byte key, published in the mid 90s, attacked by distributed computer networks, and still, it hasn’t been cracked despite the algorithm being publicly available.  That is some good security right there.

I went to a talk at either DEF CON, or San Diego’s Toorcon (sorry, can’t remember which) where the author Bruce Schneier (who is mentioned in the disclaimer / header of these articles) gave a talk after he had just published a book as a sequel to Applied Cryptography.  He said something like “Throw away the other book… physical security is the only thing you really need to be worried about.”

BTW Bruce, if you are reading this, thanks for that first book anyways man, you rock (:

… and let me know if i misquoted you 😛

Thanks for reading!  Now go forth and cryptophy.  HACK THE PLANET!

# Cryptography 101: Encryption – Asymmetric Keys

This is the fourth article in a series on the basics of cryptography:

DISCLAIMER: These articles are meant for educational purposes only. The methods explained here are meant only to illustrate the basic concepts of cryptography and may or may not be suitable in real world applications. For serious applications such as financial transactions, I recommend hiring security professionals and also getting a lawyer involved. Use this info and code at your own risk, I claim no responsibility!

If you want more in depth information about cryptography than these introductory articles provide, I highly recommend a book called Applied Cryptography by Bruce Schneier. That book literally almost didnt get published because the NSA didnt want the info getting out into the public. Yay for the 1st amendment!

## Asymmetric Key Encryption (Public and Private Keys)

Unlike symmetric key encryption, which uses the same key for encryption and decryption, Asymmetric key encryption uses one key for encryption and a different key for decryption.

This probably sounds strange why you would want to have two passwords, but the reason is that you keep one for yourself, and give the other one out to another individual or a group.

Because you keep one to yourself (private) and give the other out (public) these are called public and private keys, and this technique is called Public Key Cryptography.

Depending on which key you keep private (the encryption or decryption key), you can get different effects.

## Usage Pattern 1 – Private Encryption, Public Decryption

If you keep the encryption key secret, but publish the decryption key out to the public (or to a group of people, or to another individual), what that means is that you can encrypt data which can be read by anyone. What is useful about this is that they have to use your public key to decrypt the data, so they know it was encrypted with your private key, which means they can be reasonably sure that you were the one that wrote the message. You have effectively cryptographically signed your message so that people know it was in fact you that sent that message.

People use this technique all the time in computers, this is how you can verify that something is from a legitamate source, regardless of if we are talking about a web page (HTTPS), a valid device driver (digitally signed device drivers), or other things of that nature.

Another neat thing about this usage pattern is that getting creative, you can also be ensured that the message or data hasn’t been tampered with.

For instance, let’s say you were making a computer operating system where you only allowed the computer to run trusted (signed executables).

Re-visiting a technique mentioned in the first article in this series on hashing, a “signed executable” might look like the below:

• [Cryptographic Hash of Unencrypted Executable Data]
• [Encrypted Executable Data]

So, you as the “central signing authority” for the operating system would receive programs from people wanting to release software on your operating system.

First, you would put the software through it’s paces via analysis and testing to make sure  the program worked as intended, was up to the level of quality you wanted software on your OS to be, followed any specific rules about how the software should behave and interact with the rest of the operating system, and also you would make sure the software wasn’t malicious.  Also, you would have to make sure the software wasn’t insecure in any ways that could compromise the rest of your security (for instance, if it had a Buffer Overflow, that could let attackers run arbitrary, unsigned code on your operating system, causing viruses to spread and other malicious things).

Once the program is verified safe, next up you would make the hash of the unencrypted program, write that to a file, then  encrypt the program with your private key and write that to the file after the hash.

You now have a trusted / signed executable to distribute.

When a user downloads this executable from your application store and tries to run it, the operating system could take the following measures to verify that the executable was trusted and unaltered from the time of it’s signing:

1. Unencrypt the executable using the public key.
2. Hash the unencrypted data and ensure that it matches the hash at the beginning of the file.

If the hashes match, you know that the executable was indeed signed by the central authority, and that it has not been altered in any way since it’s signing. Therefore, it is safe to run!

I am pretty sure variations of this sort of algorithm are used by things such as the xbox, playstation and iphone / ipad devices.

## Usage Pattern 2 – Public Encryption, Private Decryption

The other way to use asymmetric key encryption is to publicize the encryption key, but keep the decryption key private.

What this allows is for anyone to encrypt a message that only you can read.

One thing you could do with this is would be to be able to communicate securely with people if all you had was public communication.

For instance you could post to a public forum saying “This message is for Jesse”, and then put the encrypted data after that.

Since only Jesse knows his private key, and thus only Jesse can decrypt the data, only Jesse will be able to read your message, even though it is visible to everyone.

Despite this, there are still several unknowns in this particular communication, including:

1. Jesse doesn’t know that you really are who you say you are
2. You don’t know that Jesse got the message
3. Jesse doesn’t really know that the message wasn’t tampered with (well… if it’s a text message you are sending, and jesse unencrypts it and it’s garbage, he knows that the message was tampered with, but if the expected data was not so obvious when it was wrong, he may not be able to know that the message hadnt been tampered with).

But those problems, and others, are solvable, which leads to our next point…

## Cryptographic Protocols

A neat thing about cryptographic techniques like this one, symmetric key cryptography, and hashing is that they are basically just building blocks that you can stack together in different ways to be able to do useful and interesting things.

Once you learn some of the basic building blocks of cryptography (what this cryptography 101 series of articles is supposed to be all about), you can then learn more about how to put those building blocks together to preform useful tasks.  The recipes for preforming these useful tasks are called Cryptographic Protocols and they can (and often should) contain more than just cryptographic techniques.

In the first usage pattern, I showed how combining asymmetric key encryption with hashing can provide you with a system for creating and verifying trusted executables.  That series of steps for creating and using trusted executables was a cryptographic protocol that contained important steps even beyond just encryption and hashing – such as verifying that the executable was not malicious or insecure.  Leaving those steps out creates a big security hole, so they are very important to the overall protocol.

For the second usage pattern, here’s some cryptographic protocols to solve the problems i called out:

1. To solve the issue of Jesse not being sure that you are who you say you are, you could take the encrypted message you created, and sign it with your own private key (of which the decryption key is public… this is usage pattern 1).  This way, when Jesse gets the encrypted message from you, he first unencrypts it with your public key, and then unencrypts it with his own private key.  If the message comes out as garbage in the end, he knows that one of the two steps failed.  Specifically, either it wasn’t YOU who sent the message, OR, you used the wrong public key when signing a message to send to him.  Jesse doesn’t know which step went wrong, but he does know the message is invalid one way or another.
2. To solve the problem of you not knowing that Jesse got the message, you could tell Jesse in the encrypted message “Jesse, if you get this message, respond by sending me back an encrypted message that says ‘the password is forty two'”.   Then, if Jesse got the message, he could encrypt a message saying “the password is forty two” using your public key, and then post it on the board again for you to unencrypt with your private key and see that he got receipt of your message.  While it’s true that anyone is able to encrypt messages meant for you, and so anyone could have written that message, there is some level of security there because the specific message you said to send was encrypted in such a way that only Jesse could have read it.  This way, you can be reasonably sure that Jesse got the note.
3. To solve the issue of Jesse not knowing if the message was tampered with at all or not (in the case that it’s hard to tell if you got the right data out or not), one way would be to just put a hash of the unencrypted data on the front of the message.  You’d have to agree with Jesse in advance on the protocol, but using the hash again, it would let Jesse know that the data hadn’t been tampered with.

## Generation of Key Pairs and Algorithm

By the very nature that these keys work in tandem means that they are somehow linked together mathematically.

I was trying to think of a really simple way to show how public and private keys work together and how they are linked, with a minimal piece of sample code. I thought i had figured out a simplified way, but unfortunately it turned out I was mistaken and my method didn’t work at all.

So, I have to refer you to this page which is pretty darn helpful for understanding how the real thing works with RSA, but unfortunately it doesn’t explain the full nitty gritty of WHY it works to my liking.  Still a very good read though: http://sergematovic.tripod.com/rsa1.html

## Common Algorithms

Some commonly used Public Key Encryption algorithms are SSH, IKE and apparently even Bitcoins use it!.

## Oops!

After I wrote up this article, my friend Patrick corrected me saying that the process i described is not the usual process for digitally signing data. He said:

You got signing a little mixed up for asymmetric. Traditionally the process is:
1. Alice creates a public and private key pair.
2. Alice shares her public key with the world.
3. Alice never shares her private key.
4. Bob can now encrypt messages using Alice’s public key and only Alice can unencrypt them using her private key.
5. Alice can take a hash of something she wants people to verify as coming from her. Alice then signs that hash with her private key. Now Bob can verify the item coming from Alice by taking the hash of the data and comparing it against the hash in the signature using Alice’s public key.

RSA Labs Digital Signing Explanation

There are two reasons that I can think of why that process is better that the one I described:

1. You can sign data without obfuscating it via encryption.
2. Public key encryption takes a lot of processing power apparently, so you want to minimize how much data you encrypt with it.  This method encrypts a far smaller (and constant) amount of data.

Thanks for the correction Patrick!

# Cryptography 101: Encryption – Symmetric Keys

This is the third article in a series on the basics of cryptography:

DISCLAIMER: These articles are meant for educational purposes only. The methods explained here are meant only to illustrate the basic concepts of cryptography and may or may not be suitable in real world applications. For serious applications such as financial transactions, I recommend hiring security professionals and also getting a lawyer involved. Use this info and code at your own risk, I claim no responsibility!

If you want more in depth information about cryptography than these introductory articles provide, I highly recommend a book called Applied Cryptography by Bruce Schneier. That book literally almost didnt get published because the NSA didnt want the info getting out into the public. Yay for the 1st amendment!

## Symmetric Key Encryption

Symmetric key encryption is a fancy name for the type of encryption you are probably most familiar with, which is using a password to scramble and unscramble data to make sure only certain people can see it.

This is in contrast to asymmetric key encryption, where you have two passwords; one for encrypting and one for decrypting (The next article is going to be on asymmetric key encryption).

## Security

There are numerous symmetric key encryption algorithms out there but they all have one thing in common: their security relies on only the right people having the password, and the assumption that the best way attackers have for getting the plaintext from the ciphertext is to guess the password via brute force.

In good (modern) algorithms, people say things like “on average it will take geological or astronomical amounts of time to guess a password with the computing technology of today and the projected future” so they are reasonably sure people won’t be able to brute force the password in any useful amount of time.

Quantum computers give some forms of cryptography a scare though, because there is something called Simon’s Algorithm which is a quantum computing algorithm that can brute force search ANYTHING with exponentially fewer operations than classical computing.  This means it can brute force guess passwords of an encryption algorithm a lot faster than a normal computer.  At the time of writing this, I think the record for quantum computing power is something like having 4 cubits work together to do some simple math operation (like multiplication).  We could be on the precipice of disaster regarding cryptography, but luckily there are encryption algorithms that take the same amount of time, or longer, for quantum computing to solve, so it isn’t all doom and gloom.

When decrypting data with either symetric or asymetric key encryption, there is no built in way to know if you had the right password or not. You can know by looking at the recovered plaintext and seeing if you got junk out, or meaningful data, but if you don’t know what the data out is supposed to be exactly, or what it’s supposed to look like, there’s no way to know if decrypted it correctly. This makes it so sometimes it can be difficult for attackers to even KNOW if they have guessed the right password or not, which is good for us folk trying to protect data.

Just like a good hashing algorithm, small changes in input should ideally yield large changes in output, which makes it a Chaotic Function and makes it so the cipher text gives as little information about the plaintext as possible.

Sometimes people will use multiple encryption algorithms on a piece of data in the hopes of making it harder to crack, which sometimes works, but can also be fairly dangerous.

To understand the danger, consider how every program, no matter how complex, is essentially a traditional algebraic function (with perhaps lots and lots and lots of terms).  For encryption, the input is the plain text and key, and the output is the cipher text.

Now, just like in junior high and high school, sometimes when you plug one function into another like f(g(x)) and preform algebraic substitution, terms from f and g maybe cancel out.  You may end up with a function that is less complex than either f(x) or g(x), or it just may be less complex for certain values of x.  An attacker could exploit these attacks to their advantage and it might be easier for them to recover some or all of the plaintext because you used two encryption algorithms instead of one.

On the other hand, using multiple algorithms, or the same algorithm multiple times (perhaps with different keys) can also make it a lot more secure.  It’s just something to be mindful of.

Clever programmers and mathematicians sometime come up with encryption techniques where attacking the algorithm itself is the literal equivalent of having to solve famous unsolved math problems from the ages.  These often seem really secure because for some of these problems, the best and brightest minds in all of history have been fighting with the problems for hundreds or thousands of years and making no progress.

Every now and then, some smarty figures one of these out though, and suddenly, encryption algorithms based on it become essentially worthless.

Another common way that people attack ciphertext is via something called a “known plaintext attack”.  What this means is that if the attacker knows any part of the plaintext before it became ciphertext, they can sometimes leverage that knowledge to know a bit more about the key or algorithm used to encrypt the data.  That simplifies their work and makes it more likely that they can get the plaintext back without having to revert to brute force.

One really common way this comes up is if people do something like compress their data before encrypting, or they encrypt known file types like executables, word processing documents, image files etc.

The reason for this is because in all of those file types, there is a standard, well known header that those files have, which allow other programs to use them.  That header data is known plaintext and can be used by an attacker to get more information how to recover the plaintext.

For all the clever people out there trying to make encryption based on super advanced mathematics, in the end, some of the very most secure algorithms out there are based on very simple computing operations such as addition, subtraction, bit rotation, and XOR.

As an example, there is an algorithm called RC5 which only uses those basic operations (you can find the source code for it easily!) and yet is extremely secure. The makers of RC5 published their source code, and encrypted some data with various key sizes (7 byte, 8 byte and 9 byte) in 1994, and it took something like 5 years for the first one to be cracked (via brute force), 10 years for the second, and they project that cracking the third will take 200 more years. More information available here: RC5

## Algorithm Components

A symmetric key algorithm is any deterministic algorithm where given a key, has the ability to obfuscate (hide / scramble) data, and then later given the same key, has the ability to undo the operations that it did to get the original data back.

Since all operations have to be reversible, that limits you to non destructive operations.  XOR isn’t destructive, because A XOR B XOR B = A.  Addition and subtraction isn’t destructive, because A + B – B = A (even true when you wrap around the max size of your integer).  Division is destructive however, because when you divide on a computer, you have finite precision (even with floating point numbers) which means you can never fully recover the origional data when trying to undo a division with a multiplication.  Bit rotation is another operation that isn’t destructive.  NOT isn’t destructive, but AND and OR are destructive.  Another operation that isn’t destructive is moving bytes around, since you could just do the moves again in reverse order to get the original data back.

As simple as all this sounds, these are essentially the building blocks of all encryption algorithms.

## Example Algorithm

Here’s an example algorithm that you could use to encrypt and unencrypt data.  I don’t do any byte swapping (moving bytes around), or bit rotation, but those would be some good ways to improve it.
``` //Takes a pointer and length so you can encrypt binary data as well as text //the pOutData parameter should point to memory that is the same size as pData //If bEncrypt is true, it will encrypt data. If bEncrypt is false, it will decrypt data. void EncryptData(const unsigned char *pData, int nDataLength, unsigned char *pOutData, const unsigned char *pKey, int nKeyLength, bool bEncrypt) {   int nKeyIndex = 0;   unsigned char nRunningSum = 0;   for(int nDataIndex = 0; nDataIndex < nDataLength; ++nDataIndex)   {     //update our running sum     nRunningSum += pKey[nKeyIndex % nKeyLength];```

```     //get our current byte of plaintext or ciphertext     unsigned char nDataByte = pData[nDataIndex];     //to decrypt, it subtracts a running sum of the key then xors against the current key byte     if(!bEncrypt)     {       nDataByte -= nRunningSum;     }     //do our xor, whether we are encrypting or decrypting     nDataByte = nDataByte ^ pKey[nKeyIndex % nKeyLength];     //to encrypt, it xors against the current key byte and then adds a running sum of the key     if(bEncrypt)     {       nDataByte += nRunningSum;     }     //set the output data byte     pOutData[nDataIndex] = nDataByte; ```

```    //move to the next byte in the key     nKeyIndex++;   }   } ```
Also, here’s some example code of how to use this function:
``` void DemoEncryption() {   //our key and plain text   const char *pKey = "MyKeyIsFairlyLongButThatIsJustFine!124351 seven";   const char *pPlainText = "This is some plaintext, how do you do?";```

```   //allocate space for our cipher text and recovered plain text   unsigned char *pCipherText = new unsigned char[strlen(pPlainText)];   unsigned char *pRecoveredPlainText = new unsigned char [strlen(pPlainText)+1];   //print out our plain text   printf("%snn",pPlainText);   //encrypt the plain text   EncryptData((unsigned char *)pPlainText,strlen(pPlainText),pCipherText,(unsigned char *)pKey,strlen(pKey),true);   //print out the cipher text as hex digits   for(int nIndex = 0; nIndex < strlen(pPlainText); ++nIndex)   {     printf("%0.2x",pCipherText[nIndex]);   }   printf("nn");      //decrypt the cipher text to recover the plain text   EncryptData(pCipherText,strlen(pPlainText),pRecoveredPlainText,(unsigned char *)pKey,strlen(pKey),false);   //print out the recovered plain text after we null terminate it   pRecoveredPlainText[strlen(pPlainText)]=0;   printf("%snn",pRecoveredPlainText); ```

```  //free the memory we allocated   delete[] pCipherText;   delete[] pRecoveredPlainText; } ```

## Common Algorithms

Some commonly used symmetric key encryption algorithms in use today are AES, Blowfish and 3DES.

## Until Next Time!

That’s it for symmetric key algorithms, next up I’ll be talking about asymmetric key algorithms, which have some pretty interesting uses.

# Cryptography 101: Encryption – One Time Pad

This is the second article in a series on the basics of cryptography:

DISCLAIMER: These articles are meant for educational purposes only. The methods explained here are meant only to illustrate the basic concepts of cryptography and may or may not be suitable in real world applications. For serious applications such as financial transactions, I recommend hiring security professionals and also getting a lawyer involved. Use this info and code at your own risk, I claim no responsibility!

If you want more in depth information about cryptography than these introductory articles provide, I highly recommend a book called Applied Cryptography by Bruce Schneier. That book literally almost didnt get published because the NSA didnt want the info getting out into the public. Yay for the 1st amendment!

## Plaintext, Ciphertext and Keys

When talking about encryption, you’ll often hear two terms: Plaintext and Ciphertext.

The plaintext is the unencrypted data and may be either text or binary data.

Ciphertext is the encrypted data.

Ideally, the ciphertext will give no information about the nature of the plaintext that created it, other than perhaps the size of the plaintext itself.  Good ciphertext will look indistinguishable from random numbers, both by the human eye and mathematically.

This is because the point of encryption is to hide any patterns in the data, and good encryption will hide all discernible patterns. The only possible exception to this would be if the encryption process made ciphertext with misleading patterns that didn’t give any information about the plaintext.  I’m not sure if this comes up in practice, but it definitely could.

Another term you’ll hear often is “Keys”. A key is just the data that you encrypt or unencrypt data with. You can think of it as the password.

The one time pad is an extremely simple, yet secure way of encrypting data.

It is so simple that it only uses the xor operation, and is so secure that the ciphertext is literally uncrackable if done correctly.

The downside is that it requires a lot of pre-shared data which gets used up as you encrypt data. When you run out, you have to share more of this data if you want to keep communicating with that person.

This pre-shared data is the key used for encryption and unencryption.

## Implementing

To use a one time pad, you first gather a large amount of random data and share that with the person you want to communicate securely with. This is the one time pad itself and you’ll want one byte of random data for each byte of information you want to send to that person.  This step is also the crux of the security.  You need to make sure that nobody else is able to get the one time pad except your intended target, and you also need to ensure that you have high quality random data (more on that later on).

To encrypt data, you take one byte from the one time pad for each byte of data you want to encrypt and XOR them together. When you are done, you throw away the used bytes of the one time pad and never use them again.

Then, you send the ciphertext to the person you already pre-shared the one time pad data with.

To decrypt the data, that person xors each byte of the encrypted data with a byte of the one time pad, and they also throw away each byte used of the one time pad just like you did.

When they are done decrypting, they will have the plaintext data, and their one time pad will be in the same state that yours is in (ie their next number will be your next number).

From here you can rinse and repeat until you run out of one time pad data.

Super simple, and as long as nobody else has your one time pad data, and your one time pad data is truly random, nobody will be able to crack your ciphertext and get the plaintext.

## The Importance of Randomness

Besides securely transmitting the random data,the other crux of the security i mentioned was the quality of the random numbers in your one time pad.

The reason this is important is because if the numbers aren’t truly random, there will be patterns in the data. If there are patterns in the data, people can possibly discover those patterns, thus being able to separate the plaintext from the key and unencrypting some or all of your data.

Randomness comes up EVERYWHERE in cryptography, both in input and output to cryptographic algorithms. Because of this, truly random data is often somewhat of a commodity to cryptographers. Since re-using random data means that its slightly less secure (would be attackers have a pattern to gain knowledge with if you re-use your random numbers!), it’s also a consumable commodity!

In fact, there are famous books that are nothing but hundreds and hundreds of pages of random numbers generated from various real world sources – such as taking the wind speed over time in Juneau, Alaska and multiplying it by static gathered from a radio antenna which is tuned to dead air. Using real world data like that, people can be relatively sure that the data doesn’t have any discernible patterns. They just have to watch out for those pesky physicists unlocking the nature of the universe and finding the patterns in the background radiation 😛

I’m not even joking about these books by the way, check this out, here’s one such book!
A Million Random Digits with 100,000 Normal Deviates

Using random numbers from a published book makes your random numbers slightly less random (since other people have the book too, and attackers may notice it on your bookshelf or something), but so long as you don’t just use the numbers of the first or last pages (or anything else predictable), and the book actually contains high quality random numbers, it ought to be fine.

you can also BUY large amounts of high quality random data online from places like random.org.

The astute reader might ask “Why don’t i just use a pseudo random number generator on each side and never run out of one time pad data?”.

Well, if someone knows the PRNG you are using, and your seed, they would be able to unencrypt your data just like your intended target can.

## Specific Attack Against Randomness

As an extreme example, lets say that instead of random numbers, your one time pad data is all 0xFFFFFFFF and that you are using it to encrypt a text file (say, this article for instance).

When you encrypted your data by XORing each byte against 255 (0xFF), all the bits of each byte would be flipped from 0 to 1 or 1 to 0.

While it’s true that it would make the data un readable, and seemingly random, garbage data to the human eye, mathematically it’s a very different story.

If someone were analyzing your ciphertext, they would first notice that the byte value 154 (which looks like Ü and has a binary value of 10011010) occurs in the ciphertext roughly the same amount that the letter ‘e’ appears in the typical english language text document. This would be astute because that value of 154 is just the flipped bits of ‘e’ which has a byte value of 105 and a binary value of 1100101 (the binary bits are just flipped due to the XOR against 0xFF).

Then, they may notice the same for other letters… that some other value occurs as often as you’d expect an ‘o’ to appear in english, or an ‘m’ etc.

Pretty soon they have a clear picture that this is english plaintext, and they can start replacing letters with what they seem like they should be statistically (for the statistically significant letters).

After that, they have some of your plain text, and figuring out the rest is similar to playing sudoku… figuring out which letters fit where, based on how words are spelled, and then doing a find / replace in the entire document for each letter you figure out.

In the end, they have your plaintext and your encryption failed you.

This is an extreme case that is really simple to break, but hopefully you can see that if you even use slightly lower quality random numbers (such as the built in rand() function of C++, whether or not you use srand(time(0)) or not!) that you open yourself up to attack and it can compromise your whole communication stream.

## Requiring Less Pre-Shared Data

You can modify the one time pad algorithm to use less pre-shared data if you are ok with the changes in your security profile (your data may be weaker against some attacks, stronger against others).

There are many ways to skin a cat but I’ll just talk about a couple.

One way would be to generate more random data from the random data you do have. For instance, if you and the person you are pre-sharing data with agree on a protocol of MD5 hashing every 100 bytes of one time pad data to generate more random bytes that you can interleave with your one time pad data, you would have a way of generating 16% more one time pad data than what you gathered or shared with the other person. (16% more because MD5 hashes of 100 byte blocks spit out 16 byte hashes of seemingly random numbers – see the previous article on hashing for more information!).

However, doing this obviously makes the “random” data *somewhat* lower quality since there is a pattern to some of the random data. As non obvious as that pattern may be, if someone were to do fancy mathematical analysis of the data, this sort of technique may cause patterns to crop up which lead to a “chink in the armor” giving the attacker a foothold in recovering all or some of the plaintext.

Another way of making your one time pad go farther is instead of XORing the one time pad data against the plaintext and ciphertext to encrypt and unencrypt, you can use the one time pad to give you the keys (passwords) to encrypt / decrypt each communication.

For instance, if you and the person you are communicating with agree in advance on a symmetric key encryption algorithm (more on this topic in the next article!) that takes a 16 byte encryption key, you could use every 16 byte block of one time pad data for an entire single message no matter how large the message is.

For instance, you could encrypt 2GB of data using the first 16 bytes of a one time pad, send that to the person, then you encrypt 500MB with the next 16 bytes and send that to the person.

You’ve effectively used 32 bytes of your one time pad to encrypt 2.5GB of data, which is a crazy good ratio compared to the traditional one time pad protocol which would have required 2.5GB of pre-shared one time pad random data.

If you go this route, your ciphertext now becomes vulnerable to whatever attacks your symmetric key encryption algorithm are vulnerable to though. If the algorithm you are using turns out to have a serious flaw that mathematicians find out about (such as there’s a really easy way to recover the plaintext – this happens fairly often believe it or not!), your whole communication channel is screwed, whereas with the one time pad, it’s just the quality of your random numbers, and the security of your pre-shared data that define the security. So, there are definitely pros and cons to weigh.

## Other Weaknesses

There are a lot of ways to attack each cryptographic technique, and if you are serious about cryptography you really need to read up on a lot of things and be extremely clever, thinking of every possible situation that anyone else might think of.

Security is hard because often times you have a limited amount of time to implement your security (because you need to ship your software or open your service to the public SOME DAY), and there are most certainly more attackers than there are security professionals on your team, and they have all the time in the world to search for what you’ve missed! Just as there is no rest for the wicked, the same too is true for security professionals.

I mentioned that the quality of your random numbers and the security of your pre-shared data was the lynchpin of protecting against people getting your plaintext from your cyphertext, but there is another way to attack the communication channel as well.

Namely, if someone were to intercept a message between you and your target person, they may not be able to get your plaintext out, but if they can keep that message from getting to your target, and do so in a way that you aren’t aware of this, they can completely break your communication channel.

The reason for this is that doing this makes the one time pads of you and your target person get out of sync when you throw away one time pad data that the target person did not throw away. This means that the random numbers you are using to encrypt your data is not the same numbers your target person is decrypting data with, so they will get garbage, random data as output and not be able to recover the plaintext.

A malicious person in the middle was able to thwart your ability to communicate securely!

Also, if a person was able to modify the ORDER that the target person got the encrypted messages in, they would be able to break the channel that way as well (at least temporarily) since it would make the recieving person unencrypt the messages with the wrong pieces of data. The next message the person got would be unencryptable in this case though, since the same number of bytes were used up by the out of order messages as if they had come in the right order.

This is not the traditional man in the middle attack, but it is definitely *A* man in the middle attack.

As with so many things, there are often strange, non obvious connections between different subjects.  Case in point, one way to protect against these sort of attacks of lost or re-ordered messages would be to implement the sorts of algorithms used in network programming (like those used in TCP/IP) that ensure “guaranteed” and “in order” communication between two computers or individuals.

Going this route, just like how computers on the internet can know when they got message B but haven’t received message A yet, or that when they sent a message to another person that it never got there, you too would be able to know if a message got to the target, and they would be able to know if they have received messages out of order or not.

## Until Next Time!

That’s the essence of the one time pad and I hope you found it interesting!

Next Up I’ll be talking about symmetric key algorithms which are the more traditional way of encrypting where you use a password to protect data.

For those interested in cracking encrypted data (which technically is against the DMCA these days, but used to be a common academic activity, and a way of weeding out insecure algorithms), here’s a nice morsel for you. It’s hexadecimal encoded encrypted data.  Every 2 hex characters equals one byte of encrypted data. If you use the information from the article, you ought to be able to crack it (there’s an easy way and a hard way).

And no, cracking the encrypted data below is not even technically against the law, I’m giving you explicit permission to crack it if you can (:

d19c9092d08a8c9a8dd08c96878b868c86929d90938cdfdfbc979a92968c8b8d86c5978b8b8fc5d0

# Cryptography 101: Hashing

Welcome to the first article in a series aimed to teach the basics of cryptography:

In this digital age, cryptography is more important than ever.  It’s used to protect financial transactions, ensure the anonymity of political dissidents, protect private conversations, help prevent cheating in video games and many other things as well.

DISCLAIMER: These articles are meant for educational purposes only.  The methods explained here are meant only to illustrate the basic concepts of cryptography and may or may not be suitable in real world applications.  For serious applications such as financial transactions, I recommend hiring security professionals and also getting a lawyer involved.  Use this info and code at your own risk, I claim no responsibility!

If you want more in depth information about cryptography than these introductory articles provide, I highly recommend a book called Applied Cryptography by Bruce Schneier. That book literally almost didn’t get published because the NSA didn’t want the info getting out into the public. Yay for the 1st amendment!

## Hashing in Computer Science

You may be familiar with the term “hashing” from computer science. In computer science, a hash function is a function which takes input data, preforms some operations on it and spits out some (usually) smaller output data that can be used more or less as a unique identifier for the input data.

Common uses of hashing include:

• Hashing the contents of large files to be able to compare the hashes to quickly know if they are the same or different, instead of having to compare the files byte by byte.  This is especially useful when comparing files over a network connection.
• Hashing peices of data which are difficult or time consuming to compare (such as strings) and using the hashed value as a “look up key” within a database or array or list, so that you can look up items very quickly by their hash, instead of having to do more expensive string compares (or whatever other more complex comparison and lookup methods).

## Hashing in Cryptography

As you can probably guess, since hashing makes large pieces of data (such as entire files) into small pieces of data (often only a handful of bytes large), there are many pieces of larger source data that can result in the same smaller hashed data.  When this happens, it’s called a hash collision and a good hash function will do it’s best to minimize collisions for optimal performance.  The more output bits you have, the more “space” you have before a collision is unavoidable.

Often times, a good hashing algorithm will have 2 properties to minimize collisions…

1. Small changes in input give large changes in output.  In other words, it’s very sensitive to initial conditions and so is a chaotic function (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chaos_theory)
2. If you give it a set of well distributed random inputs, it should give a well distributed set of random outputs.  Heck, if you give it any set of (varying) inputs, it should give a well distributed set of random outputs ideally.  By random i mean no discernible patterns.

If these things aren’t true, the hashed output can give clues as to the nature of the input, or, it can make it easier to provide input that hashes to the same output (which is the main way to attack hash based security).

For instance, if your hashing algorithm made an 8 bit hash (very small!) that always (or often) set the 7th and 8th bits to 1, that means effectively you really have a 6 bit hash, because 2 of the bits are almost always the same. In general, more bits means more security, since it’s harder to get a hash collision on purpose.

Quick aside, can you think of something else with these properties?  Some deterministic algorithm that spits out chaotic, well distributed, seemingly random numbers based on (perhaps) non random input?  How about a pseudo random number generator?  There is a lot of crossover between these two types of algorithms and I find it pretty neat that they are working towards almost the same goals, but that they are used for such different things.

Also as you might guess, hashes are one way.  If you are given hashed data, it’s difficult or impossible to work backwards and get the source data back again.  In fact, you often hear hash functions referred to as “one way hash functions” because of this.  This is important because in cryptographical uses you want a hash to reveal as little information about the source data as possible.

## Example Uses of Cryptographic Hashing

Here’s two examples of places where hashing comes in handy. One is for protecting passwords, and the other is for protecting save game data of video games.

For protecting passwords, many times when you have a large online service such as facebook, youtube, etc, there will be a central database (cluster) storing everyone’s account information, including their passwords.

If someone were to hack a server and get access to the user database table, they would have everyone’s username and password and the users would be screwed.

A way that people address this is to store the HASH of a each password in the database table instead of the password itself. When people log in, the server takes the password that it received from the user, puts it through the hash algorithm, and compares it to the hash stored in the database. If the hashes match, they know (can assume with a good level of certainty) that the user is who they claim to be. However, if this server gets hacked and the database is compromised, the attacker won’t have the passwords, they will only have the hashed passwords.  The attacker will have to try and brute force the hashes, which is essentially the same as having to brute force the password – except that they can do it on their own computer in their own time of course, which makes it easier and untraceable unfortunately.  Hopefully if this happens, the service can tell their users to change their passwords before the attacker is able to crack many of the logins.

#### Protecting Save Game Data

For protecting save game data, hashes are used in conjunction with encryption to prevent both read and write access to the save game data.

To write this protected save game data, you first hash the unencrypted save game data, and write that to the front of the file.  Next, you encrypt the save game data and write that after the hash.

When reading save game data, you read in both the hash and the encrypted save game data.  Next you unencrypt the save game data and hash it.  Then, you can compare the hash you made with the hash stored in the file and if they don’t match, you know that someone tried to tamper with the file and you can consider it invalid / corrupt.

Also, since the save game data is encrypted, it’s difficult for a user to read the data in your save game data.  Thus you protect the file from both reading and writing.

It’s possible that the person could modify the data in such a way that it will unencrypt and then hash to the same hash value stored in the beginning of the file, but it’s extremely unlikely, and also even less unlikely that doing so will result in something favorable for the attacker.  They can’t even be sure they are increasing a value thanks to the encryption function scrambling the data completely.

## Hashing Algorithm Overview

In a nutshell, besides all the stuff we talked about above, a hashing algorithm is just a deterministic algorithm (meaning it acts the same way every time, no randomness) that takes some input, chews it up, and spits out some (often) smaller piece of data to represent it. When chewing it up, it can do things that are destructive to the data (such as integer division, which loses precision) and isn’t just limited to non destructive operations like encryption algorithms are (non destruction operations can be reversed, such as XOR, addition, subtraction, bit rotations).

As an extra piece of security, people often “SALT” their hashes which means they hash some constant before hashing whatever data they want to hash. This constant is called the salt and you can think of it kind of like a password. This way, even if someone knows what algorithm you are using to hash data (such as the popular MD5 or SHA-1 hash functions), you’d also have to know the salt used to more effectively attack the system.  It’s a little extra bit of security, which is always nice.

## Example Hash Function

Here’s an example hash function in C++.   Again, note that this is not really fit for real world use or important situations, it’s just for educational purposes.  You’d want to do more “chewing” and use different operations, bit rotations to make sure all the bits got “hit” by the xor’s, etc.  Check out some more complex, real world hashing algorithms for more info!
``` //assuming sizeof(int) == 4 typedef unsigned int uint32;```

``` //Takes a pointer and length so you can hash binary data as well as text //note that this function as is won't give the same answers on machines with different endian-ness uint32 Calculate4ByteHash(const unsigned char *pData, int nDataLength, const unsigned char *pSalt, int nSaltLength) {   //setup some variables   uint32 nHash = 0;   unsigned char *pHashPointer = (unsigned char *)&nHash;   //salt the hash   for(int nIndex = 0; nIndex < nSaltLength; ++nIndex)   {     pHashPointer[nIndex%4] = pHashPointer[nIndex%4] ^ pSalt[nIndex];   }   //hash the data   for(int nIndex = 0; nIndex < nDataLength; ++nIndex)   {     pHashPointer[nIndex%4] = pHashPointer[nIndex%4] ^ pData[nIndex];   } ```

```  return nHash; } ```

## Rainbow Tables

Assuming the algorithm meets the critera above, the only real way to attack something secured by hashing (besides asking the nice receptionist for the secret info while batting your eyelashes) is to brute force hash a bunch of values until you find something that gives the same hash as what you are looking for.

Unfortunately, there are something called “Rainbow Tables” where people have gone through and created tables of unique hashes and “source data” that results in those hash values for common algorithms.  This way, if for instance, an attacker saw that a hashed value was “3”, and he knew you were using the MD5 algorithm, he could look at an MD5 rainbow table to find the value he could put into your system to result in a hash value of “3” and thus he’d gain some ground at attacking your security.

Of course, if you salt your hash, he would have to find out your salt value too and perhaps salting would invalidate the rainbow table entirely (depending on the algorithms used).  Also, the more bits your output hash contains, the larger a rainbow table would have to be, so if you really wanna screw with would be attackers, make your output bit count larger – it makes their job exponentially harder! (:

## Popular Hashing Algorithms

Two common hashing algorithms used for various real world applications are MD5 and SHA-1.  You’ve probably seen them around, especially if you’ve used open sourced software.