# Bilinear Filtering & Bilinear Interpolation

Take a look at the picture below. Can you calculate the values at points A,B and C? There’s a technique for doing this called bilinear interpolation which extends the idea of linear interpolation into two dimensions.

To calculate bilinear interpolation, you just do linear interpolation on one axis, and then the other.

Check out these examples:

Point A
Point A has a coordinate of (0.2,0.8). Let’s start with the X axis.

Firstly, we’ll do interpolation across the top of the square on the X axis. That means we need to go 0.2 (20%) of the way from 7 to 0. That 0.2 is our x axis coordinate. To calculate that we do this:
7 + (0-7) * 0.2 = 5.6

Next, we’ll do interpolation across the bottom of the square on the X axis. So similar to above, we’ll go 0.2 (20%) of the way from 3 to 5. To calculate that we do this:
3 + (5-3) * 0.2 = 3.4

Now that we have interpolated across our X axis we need to interpolate across our Y axis. We are now going to go 0.8 (80%) of the way from our bottom value (the value of Y = 0), to our top value (the value of Y = 1). The bottom value is the bottom interpolation we did (3.4) and the top value is the top interpolation we did (5.6).

So, we need to go 0.8 (80%) of the way from 3.4 to 5.6. To calculate that we do this:
3.4 + (5.6 – 3.4) * 0.8 = 5.16

So, the value at point A is 5.16. The image below should help explain visually the process we went through. Point B

Point B has a coordinates of (1.0,0.5).

Let’s start with the X axis interpolation again (although you could easily start with Y first if you wanted to! You’d end up with the same result).

Doing the X axis interpolation across the top, we need to go 1.0 (100%) of the way from 7 to 0. I’m sure you can guess what the answer is but here it is calculated:
7 + (0-7) * 1.0 = 0

Similarly, let’s do the X axis interpolation across the bottom. We need to go 1.0 (100%) of the way from 3 to 5.
3 + (5-3) * 1.0 = 5

Next up comes the Y axis interpolation. We need to go 0.5 (50%) of the way from 5 to 0.
5 + (0-5) * 0.5 = 2.5

There we go, the value at point B is 2.5. That should make sense too by looking at the diagram. It’s basically 1d linear interpolation between 5 and 0, and is half way between them, so intuitively, the answer 2.5 should make sense.

Point C

Point C has a coordinate of (0.8,0.2).

Once again, let’s do the X axis interpolation across the top of the box. We need to go 0.8 (80%) of the way from 7 to 0.
7 + (0-7) * 0.8 = 1.4

Then, we need to do the x axis interpolation across the bottom of the box. We need to go 0.8 (80%) of the way from 3 to 5.
3 + (5-3) * 0.8 = 4.6

Lastly, the y axis interpolation. We need to go 0.2 (20%) from 4.6 to 1.4.
4.6 + (1.4-4.6) * 0.2 = 3.96

The value of point C is 3.96

## Bilinear Filtering

While bilinear interpolation is useful if you have a grid of data that you want to interpolate values within (such as a height field that represents terrain?!), where this really shines in game development is in bilinear texture filtering.

Basically, when you have a texture coordinate that doesn’t perfectly line up with the center of a pixel in the texture (because there’s a remainder), it uses the fractional part of the coordinate within that pixel to do bilinear interpolation between the 4 pixels involved to come up with the final pixel color. It does bilinear interpolation on each of the channels: Red, Green, Blue and Alpha.

The end result is pretty good! Check out the image below to see it in action on a texture that we are zoomed in too far on. The left side uses bilinear filtering, while the right side does not, and just shows you the nearest pixel. Consequently, bilinear texture filtering has to do 4 pixel reads to be able to interpolate between them, instead of a single pixel read like when doing nearest pixel sampling. More pixel reads = more overhead, and not as cheap (computationally) to use.

For some folks who are reading this, this info is pretty basic and you might be wondering why i bothered writing about it. Look to the next post for something kind of bizarre regarding bilinear filtering. This was needed as a stepping stone to the next thing I want to show you guys 😛

Wikipedia: Linear Interpolation

Wikipedia: Bilinear Interpolation

Wikipedia: Bilinear Filtering

## The Dark Side of Bilinear Filtering

Check out these links for some deeper info about some shortcomings (and some workarounds) of hardware based bilinear sampling:
iq: hardware interpolation
iq: improved texture interpolation